Zyklon B is infamous for its use in the gas chambers at Auschwitz and other camps. At Auschwitz only, more than 2 million people were slaughtered, and as many as 12, Jews were killed daily. During these years an overwhelming multitude of actions happened in the West.
Throughout the duration of the war, the world was divided between the axis powers, which were Germany, Italy, and Japan. Whilst these nations fought against the axis powers a plethora of events were occurring in the Middle East during World War II.
Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine all had a role during this duration of time and were all affected by the events that the war brought about. Although there was much fighting in other parts of the world, the Middle East countries during World War II were busy being pro axis or neutral.
This meant that the countries were either coinciding with the axis powers or they had been taken over by a higher power. Like Egypt, Iraq was pro axis, and their pro axis sentiment was tied to anti-British. This did not sit well with the British and they invaded Iraq and occupied it until Since the British were occupying Iraq, their army could station and transit troops through Iraq, which was an exceptionally, outstanding advantage to have during the war.
Syria, on the other hand, was governed by the Vichy forces after the fall of France. Once France became free, Syria and Lebanon were supposed to be free too, due to an arrangement that had been made. It was hard to accomplish freeing Syria and Lebanon. The power to carry off such a reoccupation was difficult for France, so the independence of Syria and Lebanon was not recognized till the end of the war.
Meanwhile in Palestine, Jews were arriving in waves in the hope of fleeing the Nazis. Immigration restrictions on the White Paper of were violated due to the wave of Jews arriving illegally in Palestine. The move of the Jews paved the way for the creation of Israel. Palestine was then set up to become a battlefield due to the immigration of the Jews. Not only were places in the Middle East being occupied, but locations around the region of the West began to be occupied by Germans.
The occupation of these countries was a horrid time, but the liberation and end of these occupations was an occasion that would be forever remembered in history to come. On March 12, , Austria became the first nation that was annexed by Nazi Germany. Austrian Nazis conspired several times to capture the Austrian government and connect with Nazi Germany.
Schuschnigg called for a vote on annexation, but before anything could take place, Schuschnigg gave in to the pressure and resigned shortly after. He pleaded for his country not to resist any German advances into the country. The following day, German troops accompanied by Hitler entered Austria.
Hitler allotted a Nazi government to rule and the annexation was proclaimed. Austria continued as a federal state of Germany until the conclusion of the War; the Allies declared the Anschluss void and reinstated Austria.
By the summer of the same year of annexation, the Mauthausen camp was established, it was the main Nazi camp in the country. The Germans entitled the camp a category III camp, representing the harsh regimen and punishment.
Thousands of prisoners were worked to death because of the harsh punishments including forced labor work like carrying heavy solid stone slabs up steps near the camp. On November , Kristallnacht or Night of Broken Glass, began when synagogues in the capital were destroyed and burned. Jewish buildings and businesses were ravaged and vandalized, and then the Jews were taken to the Dachau or Buchenwald camps.
Following Kristallnacht, the United States withdrew its ambassador permanently. Another of the countries mentioned that was occupied by Germany was Poland. Poland had many difficulties withstanding their country because so many of their neighboring countries had succumbed to war.
With their weak economy, Poland was unable to protect their country from invaders. Germany and the Soviet Union had a non-aggression treaty towards each other, but the countries became divided in After this happened, Germany attacked the Soviet Union during the summer of in order to become the sole occupier of Poland.
Many people want to blame Germany for their cruelty towards the Polish Jews and other citizens, but the Soviet Union also was involved in abusing the citizens of Poland, who they were occupying over at this time. Although many Jews were killed in concentration camps, there were also many casualties that resulted from the horrible mentality of the Germans and Soviets. Clearly, the Germans were extremely more abusive than the Soviets, but any death is worthy of punishment.
The Polish showed their resistance by organizing uprisings and riots to show their imprisoners that they were tired of being abused emotionally and physically. These uprisings include the ones in Warsaw where both the Ghetto citizens and the non-Jewish people rose up against their oppressors.
The last German troops were expelled from Poland thanks to the Red Army in March , weeks before the final allied victory over Europe. France was another area occupied by Nazi Germany. The end of their occupation would not come until the summer of France was liberated by the successful allied operations called Overlord and Dragoon.
Czechoslovakia was another country that became occupied by Germany in World War II, but the country was actually handed over to Germany peacefully. The Munich Pact was an agreement that handed over a portion of Czechoslovakia that contained voluminous amounts of German speakers, and this section of Czechoslovakia is what the German military began occupying in During late March, Czechoslovakia succumbed to German occupation because they were weak after the annexation of the German part of the country called the Sudetenland.
The Germans rule would come to an end following the March Rhine Rivers crossing that precipitated the U. Finally, the Czechoslovakians were freed after six long years of occupation in April of In , France joined Great Britain in an attempt to appease Nazi aggression. It was soon clear that this attempt at appeasement failed.
On June 22, , France surrendered to Germany. France was occupied by the Germans until June 6 of that year was D-day.
A massive Allied force invaded the beaches of Normandy. Originally, D-Day was set for June 5, but had to be postponed because of inclement weather. The Allied troops landed on the beaches of Normandy with the intent of liberating France and the rest of northwest Europe from German occupation. There were , soldiers who landed on the coastline, but by the end of the invasion ten thousand soldiers were either killed, wounded, or declared missing. D-Day was and continues to be the largest amphibious assault in all of history-virtually flooding the coast of Normandy with ships.
An amphibious assault is an offensive military operation using naval ships to deliver the troops to the hostile shore or landing beach. The overall commander for this operation was American General Dwight Eisenhower.
Fifty miles of coastline in Normandy, France were used for this assault with the coastline on which the soldiers landed divided into five sections. The code names for these sectors of coastline were: Many lives were lost on these beaches, over three thousand fatalities at Omaha beach alone.
In total, , troops, Allied and German were either killed, wounded, or missing by the end of D-day invasion. Another country that became occupied by Germans was Denmark. Denmark was conquered by Germany on April 9, , although Hitler was not interested in the country itself but more so for control and its air bases for future attacks on Norway.
Also, Denmark was to be together with Germany to prevent an Allied invasion. The administration stayed in office and government remained mainly in Danish hands, although the police were obliged to accommodate with the Germans. One of the great successes out of the peaceful collaboration was that the Danish Jews were not mistreated or wronged throughout this time. By , Denmark had become dissatisfied with the Germans and turned to strikes. The Germans in response tried to impose the death penalty but failed when the Danish government refused.
On August 28, the cooperation between the two countries ended, and by October all the Jews were to be deported. This was ultimately prevented when the Jewish populations were transported to Sweden, where they were safe. Denmark was liberated by the British forces by the following day, but shortly after, the island of Bornholm was occupied by the Russian Army and not liberated until Austria was occupied by Soviet and American forces during April and May The Holocaust lasted until , where liberations of the camps slowly removed Hitler from authority.
By the culmination of the War, there were an estimated 50, to , survivors who lived in occupied Europe. Since many survivors saw it impossible to return home, the Allies powers created what is present day Israel as a permanent homeland for Jewish survivors in Ironically, the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany had signed a peace agreement in promising to avoid conflict. Articles have stated that the reason Soviet leader Joseph Stalin signed the Nonagression Pact was to keep his nation on peaceful terms with Germany, and in addition, give his country time to make its military larger and more powerful.
Adolf Hitler signed this pact for the Germans because he wanted to assure that the Germans could invade Poland unopposed. The pact was broken in June of when Nazi forces invaded the Soviet Union. This secret military offensive, known by the codename Operation Barbarossa, covered a distance of two thousand miles. The Germans had a strong, reliable, and vast army for this invasion and they were extremely confident they could defeat the Soviets with ease.
However, they were proven wrong. The inability of the Germans to defeat the Soviet Union in this invasion marked a critical juncture in World War II, as the Soviet triumph weakened the German military effort and rallied the Allies. The Russians were determined to defend the city of Stalingrad because it served as a vital industrial and transportation center. This battle stopped the German advancement into the Soviet Union, and was a catalyst that turned the tide of the war in favor of the Allied forces.
Belgium was also an additional country that became occupied by Nazi Germany. Belgium was unbiased until the Germans captured their country. On May 10, , Belgium was imprisoned by the Nazis. The citizens of Belgium resisted confinement; they were inexorably defeated.
The Jews began to be persecuted in Belgium due to the invasion of Germans. Belgium was captured to be a location for the Germans to operate. Since Belgium borders France, Germany assumed that being situated in Belgium would provide an improved opportunity to invade. Saboteurs destroyed major railways that led from Germany to France.
Belgium had a colony in the Congo of Africa where it had access to masses of uranium. Belgium gave a quantity of this uranium to the United States for the manufacturing of an atomic bomb. In , Belgium was liberated from the Germans. The imprisonment by the Germans traumatized Belgium as a country along with the residents.
Germany halted exports of coke to the Luxembourg steel industry which made Luxembourg slightly hostile. Although Luxembourg was impartial, the country was captured by the Nazis on May 10, Germany captured Luxembourg to have an additional base to maneuver off of; this would enable a better opportunity to attack France.
The royal family and the government evacuated to Canada, so Gustav Simon took control over the government in Luxembourg. He ridded the Luxembourg citizens of anything that was French. Citizens were informed to not use French greetings any longer. People were not permitted to wear French berets. Several Jews were extradited to Spain and France, but those countries rejected them too. Other Jews were relocated to concentration camps. The Germans cleared all Jews out of Luxembourg. The additional non-Jewish citizens went about their daily existence.
They sustained their routines and anticipated every day to be liberated. Luxembourg was liberated on September 10, The citizens and the country were overwhelmed by the Germans capture and interrogation. This allowed them to concern themselves with protecting their own country and inhabitants, while also serving as a neutral territory. Several historians claim that Switzerland remains prodigious because they allowed their country to be a safe haven for refugees, but in truth, the Swiss government laid out many restrictions towards the refugees and a countless amount were turned away.
A person could not find refuge in Switzerland unless they were under personal threat because of their political activities; refugees could not enter Switzerland if they were escaping discrimination over their race, religion, or ethnicity, but eventually, Switzerland gave , refugees access to their designated refugee areas. They accepted about 27, Jews, and this act saved numerous lives.
The Middle East had a wide assortment of conflicts and the end of many occupations in the West took place. The end of occupations in countries inhabiting the West had a lot of fighting, killing, and freedoms.
Without everything that occurred in the West, history today would be forever changed. Adolf Hitler and a Nazi paramilitary organization stormed a communal conference in a beer hall announcing that a novel government was emergent. In conclusion of his actions, Hitler was apprehended afterwards and placed in a penitentiary for a year where he composed the earliest volume of his book, Mein Kampf.
In , Hitler competed for presidency two times. He lost both times to Paul von Hindenburg. After coming in second place, Hitler was designated chancellor. An original decree was established stating that the presidential powers were now coalesced with the chancellor powers, so when Hindenburg died, Hitler obtained unmitigated power. The Night of the Long Knives occurred on June 30, which was the assassination of people that Hitler considered would be a threat in the future. Adolf Hitler endorsed anti-smoking campaigns.
He did not imbibe alcohol or consume meat. Adolf commenced segregating people by constructing innovative regulations where Jews could not marry non-Jews. Some people state he had Jewish or African background. One of the stories was that his father was the illegitimate child of a woman that was a maid for a wealthy Jewish man. In , Germans attempted the blitzkrieg against Poland first.
They corroborated it would succeed; then it was executed on Belgium, the Netherlands, and France in With the provisions being rationed, various people had more victuals during rationing than they had previously. There was a scarcity of petroleum in Germany. People were permitted to utilize warm water twice a week to manage the quantity of fuel depleted. Soap was an additional article that was limited; furthermore, there was no toilet paper.
The black market thrived during World War II, since denizens were exchanging regulated merchandise.
In September , children were advised to evacuate Berlin, but the majority did not vacate. Germans wanted women to have more children, so the population could proliferate. Additionally, Germans exhorted women to labor more, but the Germans were ineffective. It took an extensive period for Germany to recuperate from the downfall of the nation. It was an important basis on which the Nazis and Hitler sought power.
Adolf Hitler remained in the army after the end of the First World War. He went back to Munich and attended the funeral procession of the murdered Prime Minister Kurt Eisner. Hitler and those of the same sentiments be regarded Germany woes to be as a result of international Jewry, politicians, Communists, and Marxists.
The Reichswehr was later formed the defense force of Germany. The factors that impressed Hitler to join the party include:. The above beliefs and characteristics guided Adolf Hitler for the rest of his life and administration. This was mainly due to the fact that the party founder was impressed by his oratory skills.
Hitler also met another founder of the party Dietrich Eckart who will become his mentor. Dietrich taught Hitler how to dress and speak exchanged ideas with him and introduced him to many people. He became very effective at speaking to large crowds. Adolf Hitler was a gifted orator and used his talent to the maximum. In February , he addressed nearly six thousand people assembled in Munich. He advertised the gathering using two truckloads filled with supporters holding swastikas and throwing leaflets.
He used polemic and rowdy speeches to criticize the Treaty of Versailles, politicians, Marxists and Jews. Some of his party members considered him to be domineering. This group formed alliance with other socialists leading to the resignation of Adolf Hitler from the party in July The exit of Hitler meant the end of the party.
He however declared his return if he was given the position of chairman of the party with unlimited powers. They wrote a pamphlet attacking Hitler as a traitor and criticizing him as power hungry and violent. Hitler sued for libel and was awarded a small settlement. He won through landslide victory with five hundred and forty three votes against one.
On July 29 , he was declared the Fuhrer of his party. This was the first time the term Fuhrer was used. He made enemies by attacking communists, capitalists, Jews, liberals, and reactionary monarchists.
Adolf Hitler together with his wartime general friend staged a coup on November 8 The following day Hitler and party supporters marched from a large beer hall in Munich to the Bavarian War Ministry. Their intention was to overthrow the Bavarian government. This event is popularly known as the Beer Hall Putsch. They were however dispersed and sixteen party members killed.
Some scholars indicate that Hitler contemplated suicide after the beer hall putsch event. Adolf Hitler was later arrested and charged with high treason. His trial transformed Hitler from a local Munich figure to a national figure.
He used his unlimited time during the trial to voice his nationalistic sentiments in the defense speech. He was sentenced to five years imprisonment on 1st April He dedicated his time at Landsberg Prison writing an autobiography and explanation of his ideology titled Mein Kampf.
It sold close to a quarter million copies between and Hitler faced various obstacles in his efforts of rebuilding his party. Some of these obstacles included improved economy in Germany, collapse of the putsch and his ban on public speaking. The Centre Party of Chancellor Heinrich Bruning lacked majority in parliament leading to instability. The premature elections of saw the Nazis win unexpected seats and eighteen percent of the vote. They rose from one of the smallest party in the parliament to the second largest.
Hitler appealed to war veterans, the middle class, and German farmers. Geli, who was nineteen years younger than Hitler was believed to have been in a romantic relationship with him. This event was a source of intense and lasting pain to Adolf Hitler. After Bruning resigned in, the July election saw the Nazis become the largest party in the parliament with seats. The parliament was later dissolved and new elections were called.
The Nazis lost some seats but still remained the party with the majority seats. Through a power sharing deal, Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of the German government and sworn in on January 30th, On February , the parliament building was set on fire leading to the government Reichstag Fire Decree. The Nazis used their paramilitary unit to spread violence against communists. The Enabling Act gave the Hitler administration legislative and executive powers. He used this position to suppress any remaining opposition and on July 14 , his party was declared as the only legal party in the nation.
After the death of the president, new elections were not held. His cabinet passed a law making the office dormant. Hitler transferred all the powers to himself and declared himself the Fuhrer and Reichskanzer or the leader and the chancellor. He therefore became the commander of the German armed forces.
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Adolf Hitler did not live a very long life, but during his time he caused such a great deal of death and destruction that his actions still have an effect on.
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