From Greek auto, self. The word axiom derives from Greek 'axios', worthy. Backslang has been at various times popular among teenagers, and exists as a 'reverse' coded secret slang language in many non-English-speaking cultures. Some backslang expressions enter mainstream language and dictionaries, such as the word yob, a disparaging term for a boy. The full form is commonly a humorous or clever or ironic reference to the word or name spelled by the abbreviation.
He paused dramatically, before delivering his final uplifting conclusion, and, re-tasting last night's vindaloo and half-bottle of brandy, was sick on a choirboy There are hundreds of technical variations of pronunciation. This is one example of a group of them. The IPA chart is published here under the following terms of reproduction permission: The 'bullets' the actual dots or marks act like exclamation marks, but at the beginning rather than the end of the sentences.
Professional writers and presenters tend to support the view that there is an optimum number of bullet points when presenting information that is designed to persuade people and be retained, and this ranges between 3 and 7 points, suggesting that 5 points is a good safe optimum.
Obviously where bullet points are used in different situations, such as detailed listings and extensive summaries, the notion of an optimum persuasive number no longer applies, and in these circumstances anyway numbered points are usually more beneficial and effective. It is the opposite of euphony, and like euphony, cacophony is a significantly influential concept in the evolution of language, according to the principle that human beings throughout time have generally preferred to use and hear pleasing vocal sounds, rather than unpleasant ones.
Euphonic words and sounds tend to flow more easily from the tongue and mouth than cacophonous utterings, and so this affects the way words and language evolve. The word is from Greek kakos, bad, and phone, sound. It's from Latin cadere, to fall. The term 'camel' alludes to humpy wordshapes.
Another example is "When it had to compete against social networking, TV became less dominant.. From Greek kata, down, but based on the same pattern as anaphora.
More loosely a clause is interpreted to mean a sentence or statement, especially in formal documents. This is because cliches by their nature are unoriginal, uninspiring and worse may be boring, tedious and give the impression of lazy thoughtless creative work. There are thousands of cliches, and they appear commonly in day-to-day speech, emailing, texting, etc. Virtually everybody uses many cliches every day. The word is from French clicher, 'to stereotype'. Examples of cliches are sayings such as: Examples of cockney speech are heard widely in film and TV featuring London stereotypes of 'working class' people, for instance in the BBC soap Eastenders, films about Jack the Ripper, London gangster movies, 'The Sweeny', and other entertainment of similar genre.
Also, the 'th' sound is often replaced by an 'f' or 'v' sound, for example in 'barf' bath , 'muvva' mother , and 'fing' think. The term 'ain't' almost always replaces 'isn't'. Commonly only the first word of the replacement expression is used, for example, the word 'talk' is replaced by 'rabbit', from 'rabbit and pork', which rhymes with 'talk'. Other examples of cockney rhyming slang may retain the full rhyming expression, for example 'gin' is referred to as 'mother's ruin'.
Australian people use rhyming slang too, which is a development of the original cockney rhyming language. Many words have entered the English language from cockney rhyming slang , lots of which are not widely appreciated to have originated in this way, for example the terms 'scarper' run away, from scapa flow, go , 'brassic' penniless, from boracic lint, skint , and 'bread' money, from bread and honey.
The term 'past tense' may also be called a conjugation, since it refers to an alteration of a verb. This is a very significant aspect of language development. Contraction is a form of abbreviation towards which language naturally shifts all the time. Combined abbreviated word forms such as don't, can't, should've, you're, I'm, and ain't, etc.
Many words are contractions of older longer words, or of more than one word abbreviated by contraction into a shorter word. Language naturally develops in this way. Words shorten, and spellings simplify over time. From the Latin root word elements contra, against, and dicere, speak.
Copyright is a very significant concept in the creation of language-based works, such as poetry, books, and other writings. Importantly copyright makes it illegal to copy and exploit other people's work without agreement. Copyright usually exists for several decades, depending on territory and nature of work, and is subject to potentially highly complex law.
Copyright may be sold, transferred, or the usage conditions relaxed, upon the wishes of the owner of the work. Contrary to popular view, copyright does not require registration. It exists automatically upon the creation of the work. If you merely scribble a pattern or a few original sentences on a piece of paper, that 'work' automatically is subject to your 'copyright'. The creator of the work decides whether to transfer copyright to a buyer of the work, which is normally a matter of negotiation depending on the nature of usage, and the relative needs and powers of the buyer and seller.
The word girl is a lexeme. The word girls is a declension. There are generally fewer declensions in English than in other languages such as French and German.
Most demonyms are derived very naturally and logically from the place name, for example: The word demonym is recent late s in this precise context with uncertain attribution, although the term demonymic is apparently first recorded OED in referring to a certain type of people in Athens, from deme, a political division of Attica in ancient Greece, in turn from Greek demos, people. Examples of determiner words are 'a', 'the', 'very', 'this', 'that', 'my', 'your', 'many', 'few', 'several', etc.
For example, accent, cedilla, circumflex, umlaut, etc. From Greek diakrinein, distinguish, from dia, through, and krinein, to separate. A diphthong typically entails a very slight glide or slide a slightly different sound within the same syllable.
These transitions are called respectively diphthongization pronunciation introduces an additional vowel sound such as a slide or drawl, changing a single sound to a double sound and monophthongization a double sound is simplified to a single quicker simpler sound.
These features and changes in language are significant in producing the differences in accents when we compare, for example, the dialects of American-English speakers from various parts of the US with each other and with UK-English speakers again in various parts of the UK and with each other, and with other English speakers.
These same features of diphthongization and monophthongization have also been significant in the development of the English language throughout history. Similar effects exist in other languages.
Ditto is probably most commonly shown as the ditto mark " , in columns or rows or lists of data, where it signifies 'same as the above'. Usage is commonly associated with regional vernacular inarticulate adults and children, although more complex yet still awkward forms of the double-negative can be found in supposedly expert communications.
A common example in everyday speech is, "I don't know nothing.. An egg corn may be written or spoken, designed or notable mainly for humorous effect, in which a word or words are substituted within a term or expression or phrase to produce a different and typically related meaning. For example the adaption of 'Alzheimer's disease' to 'old-timer's disease'. The term 'egg corn' is attributed to linguistics professor Geoffrey Pullum, , who apparently drew on an example of the effect in a linguistics blog referring to a woman in the habit of using the term 'egg corn' instead of the word acorn.
Other examples of egg corns may be similarly daft, although some are more sophisticated. Wikipedia offers the examples: The usual pronunciation of the word 'wednesday' as 'wensdy' is elision. Ellipsis may be used for various reasons, for example: He also bought a blazer, cufflinks, some silk handkerchiefs, and cologne. Emphasis is commonly signified in printed communications by emboldening or italicizing or highlighting the text concerned.
The comedian Spike Milligan wrote his own famously amusing epitaph: An epithet seeks to describe somebody or a group or something in an obviously symbolic and very condensed way. For example little noisy dogs are commonly referred to by the epithet 'yappy'. The epithet 'tried and trusted' is commonly used to refer to methods and processes which are long-established and successful.
The epithet 'keen' is often used to refer to a person who is particularly enthused, determined and focused, and typically strongly motivated towards a particular action or outcome.
The epithet 'green and pleasant land' is often used to refer to England. From Greek epi, upon, and tithenai, to place. The term derives from Greek epo, meaning 'upon'. This is because language evolves according to its quality as well as its meaning.
Also euphonic sounds flow more smoothly and so enable easier more satisfying communications. The expression 'easy on the ear' actually has very deep significance. Languages evolves like living things; the best and fittest word sounds thrive and endure and continue to adapt positively.
The unfit and awkward sounds struggle for long-term acceptance and popularity. Avoid confusing euphony and cacophony with the meaning of words. Euphony and cacophony refer to sound and ease of utterance, not to meaning.
Words which carry extremely ugly or offensive meaning are often amazingly euphonic. In fact most offensive words are very euphonic indeed - they are easy to say and phonically are pleasing on the ear although it is vital to ignore meaning when considering this assertion.
This is a major reason that offensive words thrive and remain so popular - people love to say them. Contrast this with 'difficult' words such as long chemical names, which have been constructed technically by scientists and engineers, rather than having evolved over hundreds of years. Such words are rarely euphonic - they are awkward and unnatural, and so they remain obscure.
This is why we will always prefer to say 'bleach', rather than 'sodium hypochlorite'. It's not a matter of word-size - it's that 'sodium hypochlorite' is cacophonous, whereas 'bleach' is sublimely euphonic. In fact 'sodium' is actually very euphonic it's an old word , but 'hypochlorite' is ugly sounding and very awkward to say, so it will therefore 'never catch on'.
Death and dying are usually expressed in a euphemism, for example, 'passing away'. Heaven is arguably a euphemism for what happens after death. Euphemisms are very common in referring to sexual matters and bodily functions, due to embarrassment, real or perceived. Hence terms such as 'making love', and words like poo, wee, willy, bum, etc. Some euphemisms are appropriate, others are or disingenuous. Where there is honest intention to avoid causing offence or upset in sensitive human situations, euphemisms are usually appropriate.
Where a politician or business person uses euphemistic language to avoid responsibility, blame, etc. The term figurative is very broad and can potentially mean any use of descriptive language which is not factual. A figure of speech may be a popular and widely used expression, or one that a person conceives for a single use. There are very many thousands of figures of speech in language, many of which we imagine wrongly to be perfectly normal literal expressions, such is the habitual way that many of them are used.
In modern times font tends more to refer to an entire font family or typeface such as Times or Helvetica. The word font is derived from French fonte and fodre, to melt, referring to the making of lead type used in traditional printing.
Its sister word is latter, which refers to the last usually second item mentioned in a preceding passage of text. An example in use is, ' There was a problem involving the keys and the house, when the former were locked inside the latter Its usage normally seeks to differentiate a broad sense from a specific sense.
Generic is the opposite of specific or unique or individual. The word derives ultimately from Latin genus, meaning stock or race. There are surprisingly very many such names. Corporations and other owners of genericized trademark names typically resist or object to the effect, because legally the 'intellectual property' is undermined, and its value and security as an asset is lessened which enables competitors to sell similar products.
There is however a powerful contra-effect by which owners of genericized trademarks potentially command a hugely serious and popular reputation, which can be used to leverage lots of other benefits and opportunities if managed creatively and positively. It is, as the saying goes, 'a nice problem to have'. Originally from Latin gerundum, which is the gerund of the Latin verb gerere, to do. Gerundive constructions do not arise in English as gerunds do, but they appear in words that have entered English from Latin, often ending in 'um' for example 'quod erat demonstrandum' 'which was to be demonstrated' - abbreviated to QED, used after proving something.
Interestingly the name Amanda is a female gerundive, meaning ' she is to be loved'. The words referendum, agenda, and propaganda are all from Latin gerundive words, which convert a verb into an adjective with the meaning of necessity to fulfil the verb.
The glottal stop, while extremely common in speech, is not formally included in the English alphabet, but is included in certain foreign languages, notably in Arabic nations. All letters are glyphs. Increasingly computer symbols are regarded as glyphs. A dot above an 'i' or 'j' has traditionally not been considered a glyph in English, although is a glyph in other languages where a dot alone has an independent meaning.
From Greek graphos, meaning written, writing. Graphemes include alphabet letters, typographic ligatures, Chinese characters, numerical digits, punctuation marks, and other individual symbols of writing systems. In fact the use of the hash symbol for computerized sorting and analysis purposes first began in Internet Relay Chat Systems, first developed in the late s.
The hashtag is a major example of the increasing simplification, streamlining, coding and internationalization of language, and especially to this end, of the integration of numbers and symbols within words and letters and electronic communications to increase speeds of communicating and accessibility, and to reduce the quantity of characters required to convey a given meaning, and also to organize and distribute communications-related data.
From Greek holon, whole, and onuma, name. From Greek, heteros, other, and the suffix ' onym ', which refers to a type of name. From Greek heteros, other, and phone, sound or voice. Examples of heterophones include entrance entry, and put someone in a trance , row row a boat, and row meaning argue , wind a wind that blows, and wind up a clock.
Each word looks the same as the other but has quite a different meaning. A heteronym is a kind of homonym, and equates to a heterograph. From Greek hetero, other. Note that the definitions of these terms contain many overlaps and common features.
Linguistics experts may disagree over precise certain finely detailed differences. Remembering these two simplex prefixes will help the understanding of hundreds of different terms. For example, 'I am so hungry I could eat a horse In turn 'animal' is a hypernym for 'bird' which is a hyponym of 'animal. In turn 'creature' is a hypernym of 'animal'.
All hyponyms may accurately be called also the name of their hypernym, but not vice-versa, for example every hammer hyponym is a tool hypernym , but not every tool is a hammer. Hypernym is from Greek huper, over, beyond. A hypernym is also called a superordinate or generic term. A hypernym word may always correctly be referred to as the hypernym word for example 'golf' is a 'game', as is every other hyponym of 'game' - but the same does not apply in reverse, i.
Every word in the language is a hyponym, because every word refers to something which is part of a group of some sort. Hyponym is from Greek hupo, under, which is a good way to remember that hyponyms are 'under' a hypernym.
A hyponym is also called a subordinate term. I am open to suggestions of when the i prefix was very first used in this way. The Apple corporation could claim the first globally dominant usage.
Apple has many trademarks covering the use of the i prefix notably iPhone, iTunes, iPad, iPod. Idioms may be widely recognized, or understood just by a small group, for example by virtue of locality or common interest. An idiom is generally an expression which is popularly used by a group of people, as distinct from a figurative expression created by an author or other writer for a single use within the created work, which does not come into more common use.
The word idiom derives from Greek idios, 'own' or 'private'. In most usage the full meaning of 'i. Implicitly, intellectual property commonly has a commercial value, which while relatively 'intangible' may in the case of popular brands and mass-produced products be considerable and stated in official financial accounts. Examples of registered intellectual property are: Different registration bodies exist for different types of work and different geographical territories.
Also, irony may be used for various effects such as comedy, dramatization, pathos, etc. So called because the Janus, Roman god of beginnings, transitions, gates, passages, etc.
Janus, incidentally, is also the derivation of January, in the sense of a beginning or doorway to the new year. A juncture between syllables and words effectively avoids everything merging into a continuous stream of meaningless sounds. Think, for example, of all of the famous and well-known brands and companies that have used alliteration in their names:.
An alliterative name can help you stand out in the crowd and make you more memorable. There are probably some fictional characters or public figures that stand out in your head as a result of the alliterative effect of their name. Alliteration is a commonly used stylistic tool that adds emphasis and interest to a sentence and can help you remember names and phrases.
Publications Pages Publications Pages. Search within my subject specializations: Medicine and health Music Names studies Performing arts Philosophy. The Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms 3 ed. Chris Baldick Next Edition:
Contrast allegory with fable, parable, and symbolism, below, or click here to download a PDF handout contrasting these terms. Cf. charactonym.. ALLIOSIS: While presenting a reader with only two alternatives may result in the logical fallacy known as false dichotomy or either/or fallacy, creating a parallel sentence using two alternatives in parallel .
Welcome to the website dedicated to literary devices (literary terms).Here you will find a list literary devices (literary terms) with definitions and examples. Please feel free to post your thoughts and vote on your favorite literary device.
“This dictionary’s virtues and its plain-spokenness make it as apt to the bedside table as to the desk: Dr Baldick is a Brewer for specialized tastes” - Times Literary Supplement The best-selling Oxford Dictionary of Literary Terms (formerly the Concise dictionary) provides clear, concise, and often witty definitions of the most troublesome literary terms . CONNOTATION: The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a masalahbuatloe.ga instance, the terms civil war, revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to .
The following is a list of literary terms; that is, those words used in discussion, classification, criticism, and analysis of poetry, novels, and picture books. New Criticism. A literary movement that started in the late s and s and originated in reaction to traditional criticism that new critics saw as largely concerned with matters extraneous to the text, e.g., with the biography or psychology of the author or the work's relationship to literary history.