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Energy Conservation Essay

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❶Does anyone come in on weekends or holidays? So, these is an ample amount of energy saving opportunities in the kitchen.

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If you leave your desk for an extended time, turn off your monitor. Turn off photocopier at night or purchase a new copier with low standby feature. Purchase printers and fax machines with power management features and itself. Photocopy only what you need. Always use the second side of paper, either by printing on both sides or using the blank side as scrap paper.

Collect your utility bills: Separate electricity and fuel bills. Target the largest energy consumer or the largest bill for energy conservation measures. These above mentioned energy conservation measures when adopted can brought drastic reduction in the energy bill for the office. In the previous section, we have seen the energy conservation needs and various strategies which can be applied to achieve energy savings in domestic sector.

As we know in the domestic sector buildings are involved. Similar strategies or mechanism can be applied to commercial buildings such as organisation building or office building etc.

There is a huge potential of energy savings in buildings of an organisation of office as we have discussed in energy saving measures for domestic sector earlier. Everyone knows that saving energy is a good thing, but most people will only be motivated when we can demonstrate just how much energy they are wasting and just how much potential there is for them to improve.

Essentially you need to raise the energy awareness of all concerned in an organisation and for this; you need an energy-awareness campaign. Now, typical preparation for an energy-awareness campaign might begin with a hunt for generic poster facts and figures and generic pictures of light switches, children hugging trees and polar bears on melting ice caps etc.

But the problem with that approach is that most people have seen it all many times before and consequently they rarely stop to think about the underlying message. The usual array of eliched poster facts and figures is not nearly as effective as targeted facts and figures that are specific to your organisation and that you easily come up with yourself.

The knock-on effects of us using it e. When your concept of energy awareness is closer to home, your campaign will naturally use messages, facts and figures that are closer to home too.

The more you can relate your facts and figures to the day-to-day actions of your staff, the more likely they will be to take action. So, instead of using global statistics or natural statistics or city-level statistics in your campaign, use statistics that are directly relevant to energy consumption at your organisation. Or, even better, use statistics that are directly relevant to energy consumption in your building. Or, even better still, use statistics that are directly relevant to energy consumption on your floor of the building, or in your particular department.

Armed with this knowledge, your task of raising energy awareness amongst staff will be much easier, as you will be able to highlight the wastage that they are responsible for and encourage them with evidence of the savings that they have made. For this you need good data. First things first, unless you have good quality energy data, you will struggle to get really useful figures. Weekly or monthly meter readings will never be able to tell you how much energy your building is using at different times throughout each day and on the different days of the week — this level of detail really is necessary to calculate the focused personalized figures that can have the biggest impact on the energy awareness of your staff.

Hopefully you will already have access to interval data such as 15 minute or half-hours data — if not, you may want to look into getting smart metering fitted in your building. The figures you need will come from analysis of your energy-consumption data.

The first thing to do is to look at your patterns of energy consumption to find energy waste. Once you have found energy waste, you should be able to quantify it in terms of how much energy is actually being wasted. Start by estimating the wasted kWh and then multiple those figures by cost-per-kWh and kg- CO 2 -per-kWh figures to get the equivalent cost and CO 2 figures or if you want to highlight waste as a percentage of some sort, simply look at the percentage differences between the kW or kWh figures from the appropriate time periods, buildings floors or departments that you want to compare.

Specific figures are generally best for raising energy awareness amongst staff. Use your imagination a little — may be look at energy consumption on weekends or during lunch hours. If your building operates continuously every day, investigate the energy consumption of different shifts. All of this information will be contained within your detailed interval energy data.

You just need to extract it and present it in an accessible format. The best results by far will be achieved if you treat your energy-awareness campaign as an ongoing process. The patterns or profiles of energy usage contained within interval energy data are great for discovering where a building is wasting energy.

The fine-grained detail of interval data such as half-hourly data is key — daily, weekly or monthly data does not carry anywhere near as much information about how energy is being used. Looking at energy profiles to find energy waste requires you to have some knowledge of the way that the building is operated.

The key is to try to link the patterns of energy usage with the operations of the building. Energy profiles show how much energy is being used at particular times-of- the-day and days-of-the-week — you want to be able to have a pretty good idea of what equipment is using that energy and why it needs to be using it at the times in question. To make sense of the energy profiles, you need to have good idea about what goes on in the building.

Not everything that goes on in the building, just the things that relate to energy consumption. Every building is different, but the following factors are commonly relevant. What are the core occupancy hours e. Are there multiple shifts e. Do people ever work on-site outside of the core occupancy hours? Do certain staff stay on after the official closing time? Does anyone come in on weekends or holidays? Is there air conditioning? Is it used just for cooling in summer or is it used all year round e.

How is the heating controlled? Is it on a timer? When is it set to switch on and off? Are there different timer settings for weekends and holidays? This is particularly significant in cost terms because electricity usually costs several times more per kWh than gas. Air-conditioning also usually consumes a lot of electricity.

It indicates that HVAC energy wastage can usually be identified from patterns of electricity consumption alone. What controls when the lights come on and off? Are they automatically controlled e. Are there enough light-switches? For example, if one person is working late in a large open office, will they have to light the entire office just to light their desk? Most buildings have different sets of lights for different purposes e. This could include anything from a printing room, to a fork-lift-truck charger, to specialist production-line equipment.

When do they use energy? When do the processes run? When is the equipment switched on and off? Energy uses such as HVAC heating, ventilation and air-conditioning should usually be closely tied to the occupancy hours. Considerable energy is wasted if a building is heated or cooled when nobody is using it or if an entire building is heated or cooled when only a couple of rooms are in use. Energy performance is commonly tracked on a monthly basis. These month-to-month differences make it more difficult to meaningfully compare the energy consumption of one month with that of another.

However, you can effectively eliminate these differences by complying with the rules that follow:. However, using the average kW power instead takes time out of the equation and gives figures that can be compared meaningfully. However, in both cases it has an average power of 2 kW. So, for example, a business with a Monday to Friday working week might effectively track monthly energy performance for: Accrue month-month energy-performance tracking is rarely possible without the level of detail contained within interval energy data.

The energy consumption of energy uses such as heating or air-conditioning is usually highly seasonal. Seasonal variations do not render monthly results useless, however monthly figures are still of considerable value for viewing seasonal consumption patterns. Measurement of parameters is an integral and important task in energy management.

Here is the list of some important meters and monitors you can use as home energy saving devices: A thermometer is one of the simplest and most effective home energy saving devices. It can save energy by helping you measure the temperature of refrigerators and freezers and adjust to a more energy efficient or health-safe temperature. A thermometer can also help you find poorly insulated areas of your house. You thought your meter was just for measuring!

Reading your electrical and gas meter on a regular basis and logging the results in a spreadsheet, is a great way to get a clearer picture of your energy usage. When they spike back up, you know something new has been introduced — or some old energy wasting habit, once brought under control, is now costing you money again. Home energy saving devices such as the power cost monitor and The Energy Detective TED are electricity energy monitors for whole house energy usage, so you can watch usage change as various devices are switched on and off.

But they do not give as clear an indication of how much a particular device uses. These devices can give you an instant temperature reading for any area you point and press the trigger at. A great way to get a quick handle on where heat is escaping from your house in winter or leaking in on hot summer days. Using these meters and monitors, energy can be saved in the domestic sector. Here are some examples and areas where proper measurement of parameters using meters can save lot of energy.

If your refrigerator or freezer temperature is set too high, you can lose food to spoilage, which is a waste of the energy used to grow and transport the food to you. Leave the jar inside the refrigerator or freezer — at least one hour for the refrigerator, at least 6 hours for the freezer. Then wait a few more hours. Take a reading of the minimum and maximum and take the halfway point as the likely average temperature of the refrigerator or freezer. If that halfway point is colder than required, turn the temperature control dial up a notch.

Then reset the minimum and maximum, wait a few more hours and try again. Use your thermometer as a home energy saving device to measure the hot water temperature coming out of your tap.

Turn the hot water temperature down on your heater if the temperature is above 49C to F. If you install an insulating blanket around your hot water heater, you can use the thermometer to assess how effective the blanket is. A large difference in temperature reading between the space between the heater and the insulating blanket reading A and the outside of the insulating blanket reading B will tell you that the blanket is really helping you save. In a properly heated room, colder sections of wall usually indicate that there is less insulation behind them.

You can take readings on several windows and compare the results; lower readings on a particular window may mean that window lacks the energy efficient reflective coating of other windows in your house or if it is a double- or triple-pane window that is supposed to be filled with an insulating gas such as argon, that the insulating gas has leaked out. Some home energy saving devices were designed for another purpose, but indirectly they help you save energy.

An obvious example of an indirect home energy saving device is a dimmer switch. Here are some indirect home energy saving devices that can put a dent in your energy bill: Dimmer switches can be used for both lighting and fans. A dimmer that works with incandescent or haogen lights can also be used to lower the speed of a fan motor, if you want a little airflow out of a bathroom but not the full blast.

For fluorescent lights, make sure you use either a dimmer that is designed for them or fluorescent lights that are designed to work with an incandescent dimmer. When you put a device on a timer, you may save energy. Timer switches are light or fan switches that can either run for a range of preset times 30, 15, 10, 5 minutes for example or have a dial that can be set to any range of minutes. This can save you not only the energy used to run the fan which is pretty minimal but the energy lost when you pump warm air outside in winter or cold air outside when the air-conditioning is on.

The two switches shown at right available from Amazon. A version with is also available. Motion- or infrared-activated switches are light switches that sense movement or the body heat of a person entering a room and turn the current on when you pass the sensor, then turn it off after the movement or heat is no longer detected.

These can be home energy saving devices, if they are used, for example, to prevent a light from being left on. If you want the convenience of being able to switch a light on, but having the light turn off automatically if you forget to switch it off, try a screw-in motion-sensor switch. This works well for a lamp provided it has a tall enough shade or for a bare ceiling fixture, such as in a laundry room, furnace room or workroom.

Computers and accessories can use a fair bit of power, a power bar with built-in surge protection not only protects your equipment from damaging power spikes, but also cuts all power to the devices when you turn it off. Smart power bars, which detect when attached devices are in standby or phantom load mode, are examples of direct home energy saving devices. Home automation systems are designed for people who like gadgets and want complete control of their home through a console, a program running on their PC or even remotely by telephone.

Here are some home energy saving devices that are specifically designed to save you energy and that work well for that purpose: We can save lot of energy costs for every degree Fahrenheit that you turn down the heat or turn up the air-conditioning, for an 8 hour period each day. Programmable thermostats are great home energy saving devices. They give you this level for savings with just a little instruction from you.

Most modern thermostats allow you to program each day individually with up to four temperature shifts, sometimes independent.

To other devices are standby savers and thermal electrical switches which are useful in energy savings. In air-conditioners, controller can be incorporated which keep track of thermodynamic saturation in cooling coils and turn the compressor off at saturation the point at which any further cooling of the coils will not affect the temperature change in the air being blown over the coils. Conservation of thermal energy is a means to reduce consumption of heat sources. The building sector consumes the major part of energy.

Energy consumption rate has gradually increased due to urbanization, industrial growth and population growth. Population growth means contracting more buildings, which increases energy expenditure. The heat losses in buildings generally occur through external walls, ceiling, floor, windows and air infiltration. Heat loss through the building envelope can be controlled in many different ways i. Energy saving in different type of building walls can be done by using optimum insulation thickness with suitable insulation material.

The energy saving is maintained by reducing the energy consumption in buildings. Heat losses from building envelope have a major share in waste of energy. So it is essential to save the energy by using optimum insulation thickness. Both excessive and deficient insulation is not desirable economically. For economical analysis, the value of optimum insulation thickness was calculated by life cycle cost analysis LCCA.

Insulation of the building is an important technology for energy saving. The optimum insulation thickness is that value at which the cost is minimum, and it includes the cost of insulation material and cost of energy consumption over the life time of the building. The energy saving is maximum at optimum insulation thickness. Energy saving becomes more beneficial in that regions where costly fuel is used.

The energy saving per unit wall area is defined as the difference between the energy need of un-insulated and insulated situations. The insulation thickness and energy savings can be calculated by using Life-cycle cost analysis over life time of 10 years of the building. Using proper insulation in building is most effective way of energy saving in building walls.

Brick, Concrete and Stone walls are the mostly used types of walls in building construction in India. There are many methods available to conserve warm or cool air in buildings. Optimizing thermostat levels so the temperature is appropriate at night, weekends, etc. Thermal conservation applies also to other mediums.

Conserving hot or cold liquids is another typical opportunity. Processing plants, hot water heating systems, and swimming pools are examples where thermal conservation methods can applied.

In certain situations heat exchangers are used for heat recovery if an exhaust source is available. Another focus in gasoline conservation is reducing the number of miles driven. Many urban areas offer subsidized public transportation to reduce commuting traffic, and encourage carpooling by providing designated high-occupancy vehicle lanes and lower tolls for cars with multiple riders. In recent years telecommuting has also become a viable alternative to commuting for some jobs, but as of only 3.

Ironically, hundreds of thousands of American and European workers have been replaced by workers in Asia who telecommute from thousands of miles away. A vehicle's gas mileage normally decreases rapidly at speeds above 55 miles per hour. According to the U. The residential sector refers to all private residences, including single-family homes, apartments, manufactured homes and dormitories. Energy use in this sector varies significantly across the country, due to regional climate differences and different regulation.

On average, about half of the energy used in the U. The efficiency of furnaces and air conditioners has increased steadily since the energy crises of the s. The National Appliance Energy Conservation Act authorized the Department of Energy to set minimum efficiency standards for space conditioning equipment and other appliances each year, based on what is "technologically feasible and economically justified". Despite technological improvements, many American lifestyle changes have put higher demands on heating and cooling resources.

The single-person household has become more common, as has central air conditioning: As a cheaper alternative to the purchase of a new furnace or air conditioner, most public utilities encourage smaller changes the consumer can make to lessen space conditioning usage. Consumers have also been asked to adopt a wider indoor temperature range e. Energy usage in some homes may vary widely from these averages.

In most residences no single appliance dominates, and any conservation efforts must be directed to numerous areas in order to achieve substantial energy savings. Current best practices in building design and construction result in homes that are much more energy conserving than average new homes.

Smart ways to construct homes such that minimal resources are used to cooling and heating the house in summer and winter respectively can significantly reduce energy costs!

The commercial sector consists of retail stores, offices business and government , restaurants, schools and other workplaces. Energy in this sector has the same basic end uses as the residential sector, in slightly different proportions. A number of case studies indicate that more efficient lighting and elimination of over-illumination can reduce lighting energy by approximately fifty percent in many commercial buildings.

Commercial buildings can greatly increase energy efficiency by thoughtful design, with today's building stock being very poor examples of the potential of systematic not expensive energy efficient design Steffy, Commercial buildings often have professional management, allowing centralized control and coordination of energy conservation efforts. Solar heat loading through standard window designs usually leads to high demand for air conditioning in summer months.

An example of building design overcoming this excessive heat loading is the Dakin Building in Brisbane, California , where fenestration was designed to achieve an angle with respect to sun incidence to allow maximum reflection of solar heat; this design also assisted in reducing interior over-illumination to enhance worker efficiency and comfort.

The industrial sector represents all production and processing of goods, including manufacturing, construction, farming , water management and mining. Increasing costs have forced energy-intensive industries to make substantial efficiency improvements in the past 30 years. These reductions are largely the result of recycling waste material and the use of cogeneration equipment for electricity and heating.

Unlike the other sectors, total energy use in the industrial sector has declined in the last decade.

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