The Portuguese healthcare system is characterized by three coexisting, overlapping systems: Healthcare reform initiatives in Turkey date back to the beginning of the s. Recent reforms have put special emphasis on the reorganization of primary care services. The major drawback of the system is the lack of a referral system between primary, secondary, and tertiary care.
Since , The National Health Service NHS of England has organized health services for residents through taxation, but the needs of patients and the limited resources available pose challenges for the NHS and its sustainability. After all, the past 35 years have seen the country enact six sweeping reform packages and an array of smaller ones. Nevertheless, SUS is still an ongoing process of healthcare reform. This essay helps better understand the importance of this healthcare reform and the challenges that came with it.
In the current economic situation, the voices pushing for budget cuts in healthcare are louder than ever. It is simply something we cannot escape: Everyone must contribute and search for savings potential. But other voices claim that the current economic conditions require investment more than ever. Keynesian economics teaches us in simple terms that investment and belief in the future help to relaunch economies.
The private sector of out-patient medical aid is presented by personal doctors experts in internal and family medicine, pediatricians , narrow background experts, for example gastroenterologists, cardiologist, nurses and other medical personnel Roehr, Those American citizens, who do not have private insurance, are eligible for the action of such state programs as Medicare, Medicaid, and also other programs for the needy population offered by different states and local authorities.
One of the major purposes of the US government is the expansion of the sphere of action of these programs on all levels of the population and especially for those US citizens, who truly need them.
For example, the Tricare program is a program for the veterans and their families. In the federal government has introduced the program of the state insurance for children from families that have an income which is higher than the Medicaid admission rate but nevertheless is not sufficient in order to purchase insurance Mahar, By this program has helped millions of children, but in many states it has already faced the problem of insufficient financing.
The government of the USA pays the expenses of the public health services by means of two basic programs — Medicaid and Medicare. These two programs allow providing medical services which are either free of charge or at a very low cost, to poor or indigent citizens of the country. Medicaid annually provides medical aid to over 40 million Americans with low level of incomes, and Medicare provides medical aid to a similar amount of elderly patients and people with limited physical possibilities Roehr, Medicare is a famous insurance state program for senior people who are older than 65 years which was implemented in Before its implementation almost the half of the elderly population of the United States did not obtain the required volume of medical services.
This program coordinates the insurance of all the American citizens who are older than 65 years old and also of those citizens, who are approaching this age and have serious health pathologies.
This insurance program covers medical aid during acute conditions right up to hospitalization, various diagnostic procedures, medical services at home and short stay in geriatric homes. Besides, patients can receive some preventive services, for example vaccination against hepatitis B, flu, pneumococcus and other. Such services as long hospitalization, nurse visiting service, hearing aids and prescription drugs are not covered by this program.
Medicare is a rather effective program. It is partially financed from the special tax on workers: The other Medicare part is financed from the general proceeds of surtax. The Medicaid state program was introduced in and is aimed at insuring American citizens from low-income families. Elderly people, people with severe injuries, invalids, pregnant women and children are also eligible for this program.
Medicaid deals with five basic services: This program pays for geriatric homes for aged people who require permanent care and cannot do anything without outside help. Staying in such establishments is very expensive: Patients in geriatric homes get the largest portion of the Medicaid money Cunningham, The Medicaid program is financed both by the federal government and the states. The federal government pays the share of the Medicaid expenses from the proceeds from the general tax.
That makes approximately half of all the expenses and the rest is paid by the government of each state. Since then, each state of the country submits to the federal government a plan of the required medical services for different groups of the state population covered by Medicaid.
After the approval of this plan the states began to use federal money along with their own incomes for financing medical services. There is a different Medicaid program in each state which converts this program into a system that is difficult to manage. The insurance model provides division of financial risks according to which, each individual or its employer brings the established monthly payment Wangsness, Such mechanism of division of means frequently allows paying a full spectrum of necessary medical services.
Nevertheless, sometimes it is necessary to pay a certain sum for rendered services — the so-called franchise, or to pay extra for each given procedure Mahar, The basic feature of such organizations is the conclusion of selective contracts which is basically a contact with several suppliers of medical services that allows achieving lower prices.
Besides, these organizations often offer schemes of the decrease of the excessive medical expenses for the employer. In order to minimize the expenses, the patient needs to be preliminary examined the broad specialist before obtaining specialized aid. The first ones cover only the medical services provided by the hospitals with which they have a contract. Modern employers give preference to health maintenance organizations Roehr, Many US citizens cannot receive adequate medical aid, the number of diseases in the country does not decrease, and preventive actions frequently do not bring expected result.
Considering the close interrelation between the system of financing and the organizations providing medical services it is possible to say, that new mechanisms of financing lead to changes in the system of rendering of medical services and simultaneously become one of determinatives on the way to the improvement of the national health.
Money- d riven m edicine: The r eal r eason h ealth c are c osts s o m uch. Medicaid patients increasingly concentrated among physicians.
Healthcare essaysAmerica has a highly developed health care system, which is available to all people. Although it can be very complex and frustrating at times it has come a long way from the health care organizations of yesterday. Previously most health care facilities were a place where the sick we.
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Following is a custom-written plagiarism free essay example on the topic of Major Issues With Health Care Systems. Don't hesitate to read it night and day. The great American nationwide debate regarding how to make health care more widely available to all and still to control cost continues.
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