Crimes of hatred and prejudice--from lynchings to cross burnings to vandalism of synagogues--are a sad fact of American history, but the term "hate crime" did not enter the nation's vocabulary until the s, when emerging hate groups like the Skinheads launched a wave of bias-related crime "Hate Crime," b. In response to these disturbing trends, 45 states have passed hate crime laws.
All these states define a hate crime as a criminal act perpetrated due to the victim's race, religion, and ethnicity, while some also include sexual orientation, gender, and disability as criteria for hate crimes.
Only Arkansas, Georgia, Indiana, South Carolina, and Wyoming do not have hate crime statutes on their books, though hate crimes in those states are prosecuted under existing statutes covering murder, theft, harassment, and assault.
According to the FBI Hate Crime Statistics, there were 7, "single-bias" criminal hate crime incidents involving 9, offenses and 9, victims defined as "a person, business, institution, or society as a whole" in An FBI analysis of those incidents revealed the following:. Motivation Percentage Most impacted group Racial bias The figure is double what it was in Bello, , p.
The attacks of September 11, , sent shockwaves through American society. Coordinated terrorist attacks in New York City and Washington, DC, brought home to many Americans that the United States is not immune to being attacked on its own soil. Because the attacks were carried out exclusively by self-professed Muslims, the attacks also shined a spotlight, perhaps for the first time, on the 2. Researchers have found that the expected spike in anti-Muslim hate crime did occur in the immediate aftermath of the September 11 attacks.
These researchers also found, however, that the anti-Muslim hate crimes followed a specific pattern of intensity: Most curiously, given the locations of the terrorist attacks, "New York City and Washington, DC, anti-Islamic hate crime reports are essentially non-existent DC did have one report. As for the somewhat counterintuitive finding that anti-Muslim hate crimes were markedly absent from police blotters in New York City and Washington, DC, the research team suggested that this.
In other words, the trauma of the attacks drew people in New York and Washington, DC, together rather than driving them apart. One of the most controversial social and political issues in the United States in the early twenty-first century has involved illegal immigrants, also known as undocumented workers.
Should they be allowed to stay in the country, and under what conditions? Could they be stopped from coming to America altogether? The vast majority of illegal immigrants come from Mexico and elsewhere in Latin and Central America Passel, , p.
While much of the opposition to illegal immigration is conducted within legal boundaries and does not spill over into hatred and violence, hateful attitudes and actions have emerged. FBI statistics show that the number of hate crimes perpetrated against Hispanics rose 25 percent between and Responding to Hate Crime.
Although the term hate crime and societal interest in it are relatively recent developments, hate crime has deep historical roots. Since then, members of all immigrant groups have been subjected to discrimination, harassment, and violence. While hate crime behavior has a long history, it has only been in the last couple of decades that research to understand this type of crime has been conducted.
The purpose of this research paper is to present the hate crime knowledge that has accumulated over these last decades. Proponents of hate crime laws feel strongly about society making a statement that biased or hate crimes will not be tolerated and that serious penalties will be applied to those who commit such crimes.
In addition, these laws are important in order to deter potential hate crime offenders who intentionally target members of subordinate groups. There have also been arguments against the formation of hate crime laws. Not all believe that hate crimes have been a significant problem in society; rather, some see it as a media-exaggerated issue—a product of a society that is highly sensitive to prejudice and discrimination. Thus, a special set of criminal laws that include hate is not warranted, and the generic criminal laws will suffice.
Those who oppose hate crime laws also argue that attempting to determine motivation for an already criminal act is difficult and may pose moral problems in that the offender is being punished for a criminal act and for his or her motivation.
It has also been argued that hate crime laws do not deter people from engaging in these crimes. Others argue that the disagreement over which subordinate groups to include in the hate crime laws actually causes added discrimination and marginalization.
Hate crimes are a specific type of crime committed against individuals or groups because of their race, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, or ethnicity. Genocide is an extreme form of hate crime, and other examples include cross burnings, physical assault and even threatening text messages.
This research paper will present the history of hate crime law, the scope of the problem, the theory and psychology behind hateful/prejudicial behaviors, characteristics of perpetrators and victims, policing hate crime, and responding to and preventing hate crime.
A bias crime also referred to as a hate crime is an offence committed against properties or people, which is motivated, in part or in whole, by the suspect’s prejudice, bias, or hate towards an identifiable group footed on, perceived or real national or ethnic origin, race, colour, mental or physical disability, language, sex, religion, sexual orientation, age or any other similar factor. - Hate Crime in the United States of America THESIS: In this research paper, information will be given on hate crime in the United States of America. It’s best to know about these types of crimes before it’s too late because it’s rarely reported or spoken about but does occur on regular bases.
Hate Crimes research papers examine the criminal acts motivated by prejudice. Hate crime research papers look at the sociological, criminal justice or psychological aspect of hate crimes. Paper Masters custom writes all our research papers so you can have any aspect of . Hate crime research paper thesis September 13, Now i'm lost. is this a reply to me? the last thing i wrote was a request for essays that clearly took a different tack to mine.